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A timeline since WWII USA and Torture- A timeline since WWIIThis document was intended to give a general but somewhat thorough look at the topic. Updates and revisions pending. For purposes of determining what qualifies as torture I used the international guidelines such as the Geneva Conventions Against Torture. Some of the headings\topics are only of relevance since they impact the future of the US and Torture. Commerce Department had licensed the export of thousands of stun guns to Indonesia in 1993, in the face of persistent reports of electro-shock torture by Indonesian government agents. military equipment was issued in July 1997. company was negotiating to sell 10,000 electro-shock weapons to the Turkish police, despite its long-standing and documented record of practicing electro-shock torture." Amnesty International "United States of America - Rights for All" October 1998 "Abu Ghraib was only the tip of the iceberg, It's now clear that abuse of detainees has happened all over-from Afghanistan to Guantánamo Bay to a lot of third-country dungeons where the United States has sent prisoners. Public Health Service withheld treatments for syphilis from 399-412 black men and gave false treatments while watching the disease progress to death. By the end of the experiment, 28 of the men had died directly of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilisPresident Clinton's apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, May 16, 1997"Bad Blood", James Jones Washington Star on July 25, 1972COI Created 1941In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt created the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). Donovan recruited so many of the nation's rich and powerful that eventually people joke that "OSS" stands for "Oh, so social!" or "Oh, such snobs!"Japanese-German-Italian Interment Camps 1942-1948In response to WW2, the US arrested and detained thousands of American families of German, Japanese and Italian origin and held them for the remainder of the war in interment camps. Others fed radioactive soup to pregnant women. The experiments effected at least 9,000 human subjects including children and newborns. Some of the other tests were less discriminate. For example one test involved at least 13 deliberate releases of radiated materials into the atmosphere in populated areas. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the liberal candidate. This policy flowed naturally from general support for the {Greek} military regime." US National Archives, Record Group 59Japanese Unit 731 1946-1948Unit 731 is a group of Japanese doctors and scientists that performed biological and chemical weapons experiments on Chinese and Russian POWs during WW2. AfterWW2 the US traded immunity for access to their data. Unit 731 claimed an estimated 9,000 victims. Initially established in Panama in 1946, it was kicked out of that country in 1984 under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaty. Former Panamanian President, Jorge Illueca, stated that the School of the Americas was the "biggest base for destabilization in Latin America." The SOA, frequently dubbed the "School of Assassins," has left a trail of blood and suffering in every country where its graduates have returned. Over its 56 years, the SOA has trained over 60,000 Latin American soldiers in counterinsurgency techniques, sniper training, commando and psychological warfare, military intelligence and interrogation tactics. These graduates have consistently used their skills to wage a war against their own people. Among those targeted by SOA graduates are educators, union organizers, religious workers, student leaders, and others who work for the rights of the poor. Hundreds of thousands of Latin Americans have been tortured, raped, assassinated, "disappeared," massacred, and forced into refugee by those trained at the School of Assassins." Taken from SOAW web sight. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC, there is no democratic or congressional oversight. operation paperclip)After WW2, the US government deliberately thwarted attempts to bring to justice Nazi scientists who were guilty of war crimes. The government imported them to continue their research in the US. Former Nazi scientists (like Werner von Braun) contributed greatly to the development of rockets, atomic chemical weapons, psychology, economics, jet planes, and torture techniques. At least 1,600 scientists and their dependents were recruited and brought to the United States by Paperclip and its successor projects through the early 1970s. Many ex-Nazis used humans in their experiments in the states, many of the subjects suffered adverse health effects. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler's master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. blessing, he creates the "Gehlen Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon"), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) and SS Colonel Otto Skorzeny (a personal friend of Hitler''s). with its only intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years. However, much of the "intelligence" the former Nazis provide is bogus. Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities at a time when Russia is still rebuilding its devastated society, in order to inflate his own importance to the Americans. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities included "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."Iran 1950sAfter the CIA engineered coup, the CIA helped create the notorious Iranian security service, SAVAK, which employed torture routinely. According to a former CIA analyst on Iran, Jesse J. Leaf, SAVAK was instructed in torture techniques by the Agency. After the 1979 revolution, the Iranians found a CIA film made for SAVAK on how to torture women. "Countercoup the Struggle for Iran", Kermit Roosevelt, pg 9 "Killing Hope" William Blum Germany 1950sIn the 1950s, in Munich, the CIA tortured suspected infiltrators of Soviet emigre organizations in Western Europe, which the Agency was using in anti-Soviet operations."The Man Who Kept Secrets:Richard Helms and the CIA" ,Thomas Powers pg 155-157 "Rouge State",William Blum MK-ULTRA 1953-1972?MK-ULTRA was a secret CIA-run Chemical and Biological Warfare program created at the height of the Cold War. Its purpose was the development of chemical techniques of brainwashing, espionage and mind control. MK-ULTRA used LSD on unsuspecting subjects such as prisoners, mental patients and prostitutes. In1964 it was renamed MK-SEARCH, In 1972 it destroyed many of its documents. W. Congress," The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence" (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. Arbenz threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz was replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose policies killed over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years. Their methods included electrical torture, removal of limbs and burning flesh. One facility was also equipped with it's own cremitorium. Their most infamous 'incident' was the abduction of nun called Sister Diana Ortiz in 1989. Sister Ortiz was burnt with cigarettes, repeatedly raped, and lowered into a pit of corpses. She was also given a knife was forced to kill another female prisoner when the torturer placed his hand on top of hers. When it came to light she was American, the torture was stopped to avoid a political incident. Cointelpro 1956-1971(an acronym COunter INTELligence PROgram) A program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at attacking dissident political organizations within the United States. Its methods involved infiltration, intimidation ,propaganda, framing, lawsuit harassment, murder and torture. The program was declared dead after an FBI field office was burglarized by a group of radicals calling themselves the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. military helped "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He created his own private police force, the "Tonton Macoutes," who terrorized the population with machetes. The junta that replaces it became one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco created Latin America's first death squads, or bands of secret police who hunt down "communists" for torture, interrogation and murder. Often these "communists" are no more than Branco's political opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads."Killing Hope" William Blum KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation manual 1964"US complied a torture manual for use against top Soviets, the CIA printed secret handbook on interrogation remained a standard reference for two decades. The text, "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation,"-KUBARK being a cryptonym, KU a random diptych and BARK the agency's code word for itself at that time-was produced under the aegis of James J. Angleton, the CIA's chief counterspy from 1954 to 1974. His successor, General Suharto,tortured and or massacred between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being "communist." The CIA supplied the names of countless communist suspects. Robert Martens ,a US diplomat to that region, said "It really was a big help to the army. They Probably killed a lot of people, and I probably have a lot of blood on my hands, but that's not all bad. There is a time when you have to strike hard at a decisive moment."San Francisco Chronicle, 9 November 1979, pg 61 Time, 17 December 1965"Killing Hope" William Blum Operation Phoenix 1966-1973 Operation Phoenix, was an assassination program setup by the CIA in Vietnam. The idea was to cripple the NLF by killing influential people like mayors, teachers, doctors, tax collectors-anyone who aided the functioning of the NLF's parallel government in the South. Many of the "suspects" were tortured and some were tossed from helicopters during interrogation. William Colby, the CIA official in charge of Phoenix (he later became director of the CIA), insisted this was all part of "military necessity"- though he admitted to Congress that he really had no idea how many of the 20,000 killed were Viet Cong and how many were "loyal" Vietnamese. Phoenix was a joint operation between the US and the South Vietnamese, who used it as a means of extortion, a protection racket and a way to settle vendettas. The South Vietnamese estimated the Operation Phoenix death toll at closer to 40,000."The Need to Know: Covert Action and American Democracy", Allan E. Congress (1976) B 1 27. "The Phoenix Program", Valentine, D. (1990)Bolivia 1967"In 1967, anti-Castro Cubans, working with the CIA to find Che Guevara, set up houses of interrogation where Bolivians suspected of aiding Che's guerrilla army were brought for questioning and sometimes tortured. When the Bolivian interior minister learned of the torture, he was furious and demanded that the CIA put a stop to it."From "Rouge State"William Blum "Death of a Revolutionary" Richard Harris Uruguay 1969Under the auspices of US Office of Public Safety, Dan Mitrione and a team from the CIA arrive and teach classes on torture to the Uruguay security forces. Whereas right-wing forces previously used torture only as a last resort, Mitrione convinced them to use it as a routine, widespread practice. "The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect," is his motto. The torture techniques he taught to the death squads rival the Nazis'. He eventually became so feared that revolutionaries kidnaped and murdered him a year later. Langguth New York Times, August 15, 1970Cambodia 1970The CIA overthrew Prince Sahounek, who was highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He was replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately threw Cambodian troops into battle. The United States also defended the Khmer Rouge's right to the Cambodian seat at the UN until 1993."Rouge State" William Blum, Chapter 10 "The Long Secret Alliance: Uncle Sam and Pol Pot" Covert Action Quarterly #62, Fall 1997"When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution" Elizabeth Becker Bolivia 1971After half a decade of CIA-inspired political turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrew the leftist President Juan Torres. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer had over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed."Rebellion In the Veins: Political Struggle In Bolivia 1952-1982", James Dunkerly " The Legacy of Populism In Bolivia" ,Christopher Mitchell "Military Intervention in Bolivia", William H Brill General Augusto Pinochet 1973-1990The CIA overthrew and assassinated Salvador Allende, Latin America's first democratically elected socialist leader. Dissidents were "disappeared", tortured or murdered for speaking out against Pinochet's policies. Allen, reveals that Vatican officials had called for Pinochet's release while he was under English arrest. Senator Frank Church headed the Senate investigation ("The Church Committee"), and Representative Otis Pike headed the House investigation. The investigations lead to a number of reforms intended to increase the CIA's accountability to Congress, including the creation of a standing Senate committee on intelligence. However, the reforms proved ineffective, as the Iran/Contra scandal would show."Taken from "A Timeline of CIA Atrocities" Steve KangasNicaragua 1976-1990Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator, fell. The Marxist Sandinistas took over government, and they were initially popular because of their commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. Samoza had a murderous and hated personal army called the National Guard. Carter refused. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D''Aubuisson had Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolved into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. Armed Forces supplied the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority. CIA-trained death squads roamed the countryside, committing atrocities like that of El Mazote in 1982, where they massacre between 700 and 1000 men, women and children. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans will be killed. Torture was a common practice of the government and the paramilitary. Honduras 1983The CIA gives Honduran military officers the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -- 1983, which teaches how to torture people. Honduras'' notorious "Battalion 316" then uses these techniques, with the CIA's full knowledge, on thousands of leftist dissidents. support until February 5, 1988 when the DEA had him indicted on federal drug charges relating to his activities before 1984. He attended the School Of the Americas in Panama. He aided the pro-American forces in El Salvador and Nicaragua by acting as a conduit for American money, and according to some accounts, weapons. Methods were said to include electric shocks to the genitals and other areas, suffocation with plastic bags (when the victim came round they were suffocated again), and being hung on hooks by handcuffs and beaten. Some victims were never charged, and all of them were Black or Latino. Amnesty International's Report: "Report by the police investigatory agency, the Office of Professional Standards (OPS), found that physical abuse "did occur and that it was systematic.[T]he type of abuse described was not limited to the usual beating, but went into such esoteric areas as psychological techniques and planned torture.""No criminal prosecutions were pursued against the officers involved in the torture incidents. Attorney's office reportedly learned of the Area 2 torture cases after the five-year statute of limitations for civil rights cases had passed; when it was suggested that conspiracy charges could still be brought against those involved who continued to cover up their involvement, there was still no action toward pursuing the cases. Meanwhile, prisoners remain on death row following confessions forced by Burge and others on the police force through torture techniques"from Human Rights Watch Reagan Pulled Out of World Court 1984 In 1984, the CIA mined Nicaragua's harbors in a covert operation. in the World Court (International Court of Justice in the Hague). In response Reagan refused to recognize the jurisdiction of the World court over Americans, setting the stage for similar actions today by Bush with the International Criminal Court. liberated Kuwait from Iraq. But Iraq's dictator, Saddam Hussein, was a creature of the CIA. encouragement, Hussein invaded Iran in 1980. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein's forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing. ability to project military power in the region, and protecting local allies from internal and external threats. Extraordinary Rendition 1995-present Extraordinary rendition is a secret procedure used by the United States government whereby foreign suspects are sent to another country for interrogation. As described in various reports in the media, individuals to whom it is applied are arrested, blindfolded, shackled, and sedated, and transported by private jet or other means to the destination. The US agency involved may provide the relevant foreign intelligence service with a list of questions it wants answered. It is acknowledged and even expected that these suspects may be tortured despite official assurances to the contrary. Initially, the procedure was applied primarily to individuals for whom there were outstanding arrest warrants. After the 9/11 attacks, however, the program was greatly expanded and came to encompass individuals for whom there were but vague suspicions. Critics charge that the program has "spun out of control", and used against large numbers of individuals, well over one hundred. In some cases, suspects to whom the procedure has been applied have later appeared to be innocent. custody in Afghanistan, including four cases already determined by Army investigators to be murder or manslaughter. Former detainees have made scores of other claims of torture and other mistreatment. personnel arbitrarily detaining Afghan civilians, using excessive force during arrests of non-combatants, and mistreating detainees. Detainees held at military bases in 2002 and 2003 described to Human Rights Watch being beaten severely by both guards and interrogators, deprived of sleep for extended periods, and intentionally exposed to extreme cold, as well as other inhumane and degrading treatment. In December 2004, Human Rights Watch raised additional concerns about detainee deaths, including one alleged to have occurred as late as September 2004. Upon arrival it was not uncommon to find many of the prisoners dead. Other reports of desert executions have surfaced. Reports by FBI agents who witnessed detainee abuse, including chained detainees forced to sit in their own excrement, have recently emerged, adding to the statements of former detainees describing the use of painful stress positions, use of military dogs to threaten detainees, threats of torture and death, and prolonged exposure to extremes of heat, cold and noise. Ex-detainees also said they had been subjected to weeks and even months in solitary confinement, at times either suffocatingly hot or cold from excessive air con

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